Below are our publications – some of which have a very brief synopsis and description of relevance. * denotes student.

In press

Schipper L.A; Petrie*, O.J.; O’Neill, T.A.; Mudge, P.L.; Liáng, L.L.; Robinson*, J.M.; Arcus, V.L. (accepted) Shifts in temperature response of soil respiration between adjacent irrigated and non-irrigated dryland grazed pastures. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

Wecking*, A.R.; Campbell, D.I.; Wall, A.M. Liang, L.L.; Lindsey, S.: Luo, J.; Schipper, L.A. (submitted). Reconciling annual nitrous oxide emissions of an intensively grazed dairy pasture determined by eddy covariance and emission factors Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment


Rambags*, F.; Tanner, C.C.; Schipper, L.A. (2019) Denitrification and anammox remove nitrogen in denitrifying bioreactors. Ecological Engineering. 138: 38-45.

Rambags*, F.; Tanner, C.C.; Schipper, L.A. Stott, R. (2019) Bacteria and virus removal in denitrifying bioreactors: effects of media type and age. Ecological Engineering. 138: 46-53.

Wall, A.M.*; Campbell, D.I.; Mudge, P.L.; Rutledge, S.; Schipper, L.A. (2019) Carbon budget of an intensively grazed temperate grassland with large quantities of imported supplemental feed. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 281: 1-15.

Ratcliffe*, J.: Campbell, D.I.; Clarkson, B.R.; Wall, A.M.; Schipper, L.A. (2019) Water table fluctuations control CO2 exchange in wet and dry bogs through different mechanisms. Science of the Total Environment. 655: 1037-1046.

Maxwell, B.*; Birgand, F.; Schipper, L.; Christianson, L.; Tian, S.; Helmers, M.; Williams, D.; Chescheir, G.; Youssef, M. (2019) Impact of drying-rewetting cycles on nitrate removal rates in woodchip bioreactors. Journal of Environmental Quality. 48: 93-101.

Pronger*, J.; Campbell, D.I.; Clearwater, M.J.; Mudge, P.L.; Rutledge, S.; Wall, A.M.; Schipper, L.A. (2019) Towards optimisation of water use efficiency in dryland pastures using carbon isotope discrimination as a tool to select plant species mixtures. Science of the Total Environment. 665: 698-708.


Wallace*, K.; Laughlin, D.; Clarkson, B.; Schipper, L.A. (2018) Forest canopy restoration has indirect effects on litter decomposition and no effect on denitrification. Ecosphere. 9 (12).

Balvert*, S.; Luo, J.; Schipper L.A. (2018) Can incorporating brassica tissues into soil reduce nitrification rates and nitrous oxide emissions? Journal of Environmental Quality. 47: 1436-1444.

Liang, L.L; Campbell, D.I.; Wall, A.M.; Schipper, L.A. (2018) Pattern and Regulation of N2O Fluxes from Grazed Pasture using Eddy Covariance Measurements. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 268:171-180.

Douglas*, E.J.; Pilditch, C.A.; Lohrer, A.M.; Savage, C.; Schipper, L.A.; Thrush, S.F. (2018) Sedimentary environment influences ecosystem response to nutrient enrichment. Estuaries and Coasts. 41(7):1994-2008 10.1007/s12237-018-0416-5

Yuan Liu; Xuefa Wen; Li Xu; Xiaomin Sun; Guirui Yu; Liang, L.; Schipper, L.A. (2018) The optimum temperature of soil microbial respiration: Patterns and controls. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 121: 35-42

Liang, L.L.; Arcus, V.L.; Heskel, M.A.; O’Sullivan, O.S.; Weerasinghe, L.K.; Creek, D.; Egerton, J.J.G.; Tjoelker, M.G.; Atkin, O.K.; Schipper, L.A. (2018) Macromolecular rate theory (MMRT) provides a thermodynamics rationale to underpin the convergent temperature response in plant leaf respiration. Global Change Biology. 24: 1538–1547

Schipper, L.A.; Smith, P. (2018) Deforestation may increase soil carbon but it is unlikely to be continuous or unlimited. Letter to the editor. Global Change Biology. 24: 557-558.

Whitehead, D.; Schipper, L.A.; Pronger, J.; Moinet, Y.J.K.; Mudge, P.L.; Pereirad, R.C.; Kirschbaum, M.U.F.; McNally, S.R.; Beare, M.H.; Camps M. (2018) ) Management practices to reduce losses or increase soil carbon stocks in temperate grazed grasslands: New Zealand as a case study. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 265:432-443.


Tomer, M.D.; James, D.E.; Schipper, L.A.; Wills, S. (2017) Using USDA’s national cooperative soil survey soil characterization data to detect soil change: a cautionary tale Soil Science Society of America Journal. 81(6): 1463-1474.

Douglas*, E.J.; Pilditch, C.A.; Kraan, C.; Schipper, L.A.; Lohrer, A.M.; Thrush, S.F. (2017) Macrofaunal functional diversity provides resilience to nutrient enrichment in coastal sediments. Ecosystems. 20: 1324–1336. doi:10.1007/s10021-017-0113-4.

Goodrich*, J; Campbell, D.I.; Schipper L.A. (2017) Southern hemisphere bog persists as a strong carbon sink during droughts. Biogeosciences: 14, 4563-4576.

Salmanzadeh, M.*; Schipper, L.A.; Balks, M.R.; Hartland, A.; Mudge, P.L. (2017) The effect of irrigation on cadmium losses from agricultural soils. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 247: 84-90

Salmanzadeh*, M.; Hartland, A.; Stirling, C.; Balks, M; Schipper, L.A., Chaitanya, J.; George, E. (2017) Long-term change in the cadmium isotopic composition of agricultural soil arising from phosphate fertilizer applications. Environmental Science & Technology. 51: 7369 – 7377.

Santoso*, A.B.; Hamilton, P.D.; Hendy, C.H.; Schipper, L.A. (2017) Carbon dioxide emissions and sediment organic carbon burials across a gradient of trophic state in eleven New Zealand lakes. Hydrobiologia. 795, 341–354.

Balvert*, S.; Luo, J.; Schipper, L.A. (2017) Do glucosinolate hydrolysis products reduce nitrous oxide emissions from urine affected soil? Science of the Total Environment. 603–604, 370–380.

Chabbi, A.; Lehmann, J.; Ciais, P.; Loescher, H.W.; Cotrufo, M.F.; Don, A.; SanClements, M.; Schipper, L.; Six, J. ; Smith, P.; Rumpel, C. (2017) Aligning agriculture and climate policy. Nature Climate Change. 7, 307–309

Schipper, L.A.; Mudge, P.L.; Kirschbaum, M.U.F.; Hedley, C.B.; Golubiewski, N.E.; Smaill, S.J.; Kelliher, F.M. (2017) A review of soil carbon change in grazed New Zealand pastures. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 60(2): 93–118. DOI: 10.1080/00288233.2017.1284134

McNally, S.R.*; Laughlin, D.C.; Rutledge, S.; Dodd, M.B.; Six, J.; Schipper, L.A. (2017) Herbicide application during pasture renewal increases root turnover and carbon input to soil in perennial ryegrass and white clover pasture. Plant and Soil. 412: 133–142 DOI 10.1007/s11104-016-3050-7.

Robinson*, J.M.; O’Neill, T.A.; Ryburn, J.; Liang L., Arcus, V.L.; Schipper L.A. (2017) Rapid laboratory measurement of the temperature dependence of soil respiration and application to seasonal changes in three diverse soils. Biogeochemistry. 133: 101-112

Rutledge, S.; Wall, A.M.; Mudge, P.L.; Troughton, B.; Campbell, D.I.; Pronger, J.; Joshi, C.; Schipper, L.A. (2017). The carbon balance of a temperate grassland Part II: The impact of pasture renewal via direct drilling. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 239: 132-142.

Rutledge, S.; Wall, A. M.; Mudge, P. L.; Troughton, B.; Campbell, D. I.; Pronger, J.; Joshi, C.; Schipper, L. A. (2017). The carbon balance of a temperate grassland Part I: The impact of increased species diversity. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 239: 310–323

Kirschbaum, M.U.F.; Schipper, L.A.; Mudge, P.L.; Rutledge, S.; Puche, N.; Campbell, D.I. (2017). The trade-offs between milk production and soil organic carbon storage in dairy systems under different management and environmental factors. Science of the Total Environment 577: 61-72 DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.055.

Mudge, P.L.; Kelliher, F.M.; Knight, T.; O’Connell, D., Fraser, S.; Schipper, L.A. (2017) Irrigating grazed pasture decreases soil carbon and nitrogen stocks. Global Change Biology, 23: 945–954 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13448.


Salmanzadeh, M.*; Balks, M.R.; Hartland, A.; Schipper, L.A. (2016) Cadmium accumulation in three contrasting New Zealand soils with the same phosphate fertilizer history. Geoderma Regional 7: 271–278. DOES NOT SHOW UP ON ISI

Pronger*, J.; Campbell, D.I.; Clearwater, M.J.; Rutledge, S.; Wall, M.J.; Schipper, L.A. (2016) Low spatial and inter-annual variability in evaporation from a year round intensively grazed temperate pasture system. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 232:46-58.

Sparling, G.P.; *Chibnall, E.J.; *Pronger, J.; Rutledge, S.; Wall, A.M.; Campbell, D.I.; Schipper, L.A. (2016). Estimates of annual leaching losses of dissolved organic carbon from pastures on Allophanic Soils grazed by dairy cattle, Waikato, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 59(1): 32-49. 

Liebig MA, Franzluebbers AJ, Alvarez C, Chiesa TD, Lewczuk N, Pineiro G, Posse G, Yahdjian L, Grace P, Cabral OMR, Martin-Neto L, Rodrigues R, Amiro B, Angers D, Hao X, Oelbermann M, Tenuta M, Munkholm LJ, Regina K, Cellier P, Ehrhardt F, Richard G, Dechow R, Agus F, Widiarta N, Spink J, Berti A, Grignani C, Mazzoncini M, Orsini R, Roggero PP, Seddaiu G, Tei F, Ventrella D, Vitali G, Kishimoto-Mo A, Shirato Y, Sudo S, Shin J, Schipper L, Save R, Leifeld J, Spadavecchia L, Yeluripati J, Del Grosso S, Rice C, Sawchik J (2016) MAGGnet: An international network to foster mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gases. Carbon Management 7(3-4): 243-248

Addy, K.; Gold, A.J.; Christianson, L.E.; David, M.B.; Schipper, L.A.; Sacha, N.A. (2016). Denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate removal: an meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental Quality. 45:873-881. doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0399

Christianson, L.E.; Schipper, L.A. (2016) Moving denitrifying bioreactors beyond proof of concept: introduction to the special section. Journal of Environmental Quality. 45:757-61. doi:10.2134/jeq2016.01.0013

*Rambags, F.; Tanner, C.C.; Stott, R.; Schipper, L.A. (2016) Fecal bacteria, bacteriophage, and nutrient reductions in a full-scale denitrifying woodchip bioreactor. Journal of Environmental Quality. 45:847-854. doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0326

Huang, Y-T.*; Lowe, D.J.; Churchman, G.J.; Schipper, L.A.; Cursons, R.; Zhang, H.; Chen, T.Y.; Cooper, A. (2016) DNA adsorption by nanocrystalline allophane spherules and nanoaggregates, and implications for carbon sequestration in Andisols. Applied Clay Science 120: 40–50.

Huang*, Y-T.; Lowe, D.J.; Zhang, H.; Cursons, R.; Young, J.M.; Churchman, G.J.; Schipper, L.A.; Rawlence, N.J.; Wood, J.R.; Cooper, A. (2016) A new method to extract and purify DNA from allophanic soils and paleosols, and potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction and other applications. Geoderma. 274:114-125 15.

Arcus, V.L.; Prentice, E.; Hobbs, J.K.; Mulholland, A.J.; Vander Kamp, M.W.; Pudney, C.R.; Parker, E.J.; Schipper, L.A. (2016) On the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalysed rates. Biochemistry. 55: 1681-1688. ACS Editors’ Choice


Sparling G.P.; Littler, R.; Schipper L.A.; Stevenson, B.; Sherman, L.; Russell J.M. (accepted) Changes in characteristics of soils irrigated with processing waste water from three New Zealand dairy factories. Soil Research.

*Goodrich, J.P.; Campbell, D.I.; Clearwater, M.J.; Schipper L.A. (accepted) Over-riding control of methane flux temporal variability by water table dynamics in a Southern Hemisphere raised bog. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences.

McNally, S.R.*; Laughlin, D.C.; Rutledge, S.; Dodd, M.B.; Six, J.; Schipper, L.A. (accepted) Root carbon inputs under moderately diverse sward and conventional ryegrass-clover pasture: implications for soil carbon sequestration. Plant and Soil.

Craine, J.M.; Elmore, A.J.; Wang, L.; Augusto, L.; Baisden, W.T.; Brookshire, E.N.J.; Cramer, M.D.;  Hasselquist, N.J.; Hobbie, E.A.; Kahmen, A.; Koba, K.; Kranabetter, J.M.; Mack, M. C.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Mayor, J.R.; McLauchlan, K.K.; Michelsen, A.; Nardoto, G.B.; Oliveira, R.S.; Perakis, S.S.; Peri, P.L.; Quesada, C.A.; Richter, A.; Schipper, L.A.; Stevenson, B.A.; Turner, B.L.; Viani, R.A.G.; Wanek W.; Zeller B. (2015). Convergence of soil nitrogen isotopes across global climate gradients. Scientific Reports 5: 8280. DOI 10.1038/srep08280.

Rutledge, S.; Mudge, P.L.; Campbell, D.I.;  Woodward, S.L.; Goodrich, J.P.;  Wall, A. M.; Kirschbaum, M.U.F.;  Schipper L.A. (2015) CO2 and carbon balance of an intensively grazed temperate dairy pasture over four years. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 206: 10-20.

Didham, R.K.; Barker, G.M.; Bartlam, S.; Deakin, E.L.; Denmead, L.H.; Fisk, L.M.: Peters, J.M.R.; Tylianakis, J.M.; Wright, H.; Schipper, L.A. (2015) Agricultural intensification exacerbates spillover effects on soil biogeochemistry in adjacent forest remnants. PLoS ONE 10(1): e0116474. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116474

*Goodrich, G.P.; Campbell, D.I.; Schipper, L.A.; Clearwater, M.; Rutledge S.; Keyte-Beattie, A. (2015) High vapour pressure deficit constrains GPP and the light response of NEE at a Southern Hemisphere bog. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 203: 54–63.

Campbell, D.I.; Wall, A.A.; Nieveen, J.P.; Schipper L.A. (2015) Variations in CO2 exchange for dairy farms with year-round rotational grazing on peat soils. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 202: 68-78.

Scott, J.T; Lambie, S.M.; Stevenson, B.A.; Schipper, L.A.; Parfitt, R.L.; McGill A.C. (2015) Carbon and nitrogen leaching under high and low phosphate fertility pasture with increasing nitrogen inputs. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 202:139-147.

Kirschbaum, M.U.F.; Rutledge, S.; Kuijper, I.; Mudge, P.L.; Puche, N.; Wall, A.; Roach, C.G.; Schipper, L.A.; Campbell, D.I. (2015) Modelling carbon and water exchange of a grazed pasture in New Zealand constrained by eddy covariance measurements. Science for the Total Environment. 512-513: 273-286.


Schipper, L.A.; Hobbs, J.K.; Rutledge S.; Arcus, V.L. (2014) Thermodynamic theory explains the temperature optima of soil microbial processes and high Q10 values at low temperatures. Global Change Biology. 20, 3578–3586. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12596

Synopsis: We previously developed a new theory (macromolecular rate theory- MMRT) of how enzymes respond to increasing temperature that includes an optimum. Here, we apply MMRT to soil processes and find that it explains many published studies that have not been well described in the past. MMRT also makes very sensible predictions about the sensitivity of biological rates to increasing temperature.

Relevance: Developing underpinning theory from first principles is critical for developing models that predict how soil biological processes respond not only to daily and seasonal effects but to increasing global temperatures. MMRT now underpins observations that were previously explained using a combination of the Arrhenius equation coupled to some sort of description of enzymic denaturation.

Pronger, J.; Schipper, L.A.; Hill, R.; Campbell D.I.; McLeod, M. (2014) Subsidence rates of drained agricultural peatlands in New Zealand and the relationship with time since drainage. Journal of Environmental Quality. 43: 1442-1449

Synopsis: This paper reports rates of peat subsidence of pastures on former Waikato peat bogs during the last 80 and 10 years and places this loss in in context of international rates. On average, peat subsided at about 20 mm per year but has slowed somewhat with time since drainage. Collated international data was well described by an exponential relationship with time since drainage showing that subsidence continues for as long as peat is drained.

Relevance: This study provides strong evidence that peat will continue to subside so long as it is drained. This will require ongoing deepening of drains to remove water which in some cases will require pumping with associated increasing costs, which could impact profitably of land.

 Huang, Y-T.; Lowe, D.J.; Churchman, G.J.; Schipper, L.; Rawlence, N.J.; Cooper, A.  (2014) Carbon storage and DNA adsorption in allophanic soils and paleosols. In: Hartemink, A.E.; McSweeney, K. (eds). “Soil Carbon”. Progress in Soil Science Series, Springer, New York, pp. 163-172. DOI : 10.1007/978-3-319-04084-4_17.

Campbell, D.I.; Smith J.; Goodrich, J.P.; Wall, A.; Schipper L.A. (2014) Year-round growing conditions explains large CO2 sink strength in a New Zealand raised peat bog. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 192-193:59-68.

Sparling, G.P.; Lewis, R.; Schipper, L.A.; Mudge, P.L.; Balks, M.R. (2014) Changes in soil organic C and N contents at three chronosequences after conversion from plantation pine forest to dairy pasture on a New Zealand Pumice soil. Soil Research. 52: 38-45.

Mudge, P.L.; Schipper, L.A.; Baisden, W.T.; Ghani, A.; Lewis, R.W. (2014) Changes in soil C, N and δ15N along three forest-to-pasture chronosequences in New Zealand. Soil Research. 52: 27–37.

Hartemink, A.E.; Balks, M.R.; Chen, Z.; Drohan, P.; Field, D.; Krasilnikov, P.; Lowe , D,J.; Rabenhorst, M.; van Rees, K.; Schad, P.; Schipper, L.A.; Sonneveld, M.; Walter, C. (2014) The joy of teaching soil science. Geoderma. 217-218: 1-9.

Rutledge, S.; Mudge, P.L.; Wallace, D.F.; Campbell, D.I.; Woodward, S.L.; Wall, A.; Schipper, L.A. (2014) CO2 balance following cultivation of a temperate permanent pasture. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment. 184: 21– 33.

Barnett, A.L.; Schipper, L.A.; Taylor, A.; Balks, M.R.; Mudge P.L. (2014) Soil C and N contents in a paired survey of dairy and dry stock pastures in New Zealand. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 185: 34– 40. DOI 10.1016/j.agee.2013.12.008.

Schipper, L.A.; Parfitt, R.L.; Fraser, S.; Littler R.A.; Baisden, W.T.; Ross, C. (2014) Soil order and grazing management effects on changes in soil C and N in New Zealand pastures.  Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 184: 67-75.


Lambie, S.M.; Schipper, L.A.; Balks, M.R.; Baisden, W.T. (2013) Priming of soil decomposition leads to losses of carbon in cow-urine-treated soil. Soil Research 51:513-520.

Hobbs, J.K.; Jiao, W.; Easter, A.D.; Parker, E.J.; Schipper, L.A.; Arcus, V.L. (2013) The Change in Heat Capacity for Enzyme Catalysis Determines the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme Catalysed Rates. ACS Chemical Biology. 8: 2388-2393.

Gold, A.J.; Addy, K.; David, M.B.; Schipper, L.A.; Needelman, B. (2013) Artificial Sinks: Opportunities and Challenges for Managing Offsite Nitrogen Losses. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education. 151:9-19.

Welten, B.G.; Ledgard, S.F; Schipper, L.A.; Waller, J.E.; Kear, M.J.; Dexter, M.M.; (2013) Effects of prolonged oral administration of dicyandiamide to dairy heifers on excretion in urine and efficacy in soil. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 173: 28-36.

Synopsis: This paper demonstrates that providing DCD (a nitrification inhibitor) directly to dairy cows resulted in excretion of DCD in urine at concentrations sufficiently high to inhibit nitrification in soil.

Relevance: This provides an alternative approach for inhibiting nitrification in soil and the potential consequence is a reduction in nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide emissions from pastures.

Mudge, P.L.; Schipper, L.A.; Ghani, A.; Upsdell, M.; Baisden, W.T. (2013) Changes in Natural 15N Abundance in Pastoral Soils Receiving Differing Amounts of Superphosphate Fertilizer and Irrigation for 50 Years. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 77, 830–841.

Watkins, N.L.; Schipper, L.A.; Sparling, G.P.; Thorrold, B.; Balks M.R. (2013) Multiple small doses of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) are ineffective in reducing denitrification from dairy pasture in Waikato, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 56: 37-48. 10.1080/00288233.2012.736389

Baisden, W.T.; Parfitt, R.L; Ross, C.; Schipper, L.A.; Canessa S. (2013) Evaluating 50 years of time-series soil radiocarbon data: towards routine calculation of robust C turnover rates. Biogeochemistry. 112: 129-137. DOI 10.1007/s10533-011-9675-y.

Kelliher, F.M., Parfitt, R.L.; van Koten, C.; Schipper, L.A.; Rys, G. (2013) Use of shallow samples to estimate the total carbon storage in pastoral soils. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 56 (1) 86-90. 10.1080/00288233.2012.729512

Welten, B.G.; Ledgard, S.F; Schipper, L.A.; Judge A.A. (2013) Effect of amending cattle urine with dicyandiamide on soil nitrogen dynamics and leaching of urinary-nitrogen. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment.167, 12-22.

Blyth, J.M.; Campbell, D.I.; Schipper, L.A. (2013) Utilising soil indicators to explain historical vegetation changes of a peat bog subjected to flood inundation. Ecohydrology. 6, 104–116. DOI: 10.1002/eco.1247

Synopsis: This paper demonstrates the use of soil indicators to understand why vegetation patterns have changed in an important wetland.

Relevance: Altered flood regimes imported nutrients deep into the wetland increasing fertility of a nutrient poor environment and allowed Manuka to invade the wetland.

Parfitt, R.L.; Baisden, W.T.; Ross, C.; Rosser, B.J.; Schipper, L.A.; Barry B. (2013) Influence of erosion and deposition on carbon and nitrogen accumulation in resampled steepland soils under pasture in New Zealand. Geoderma. 192:154-159.

Synopsis: This paper modelled carbon recovery following topsoil loss due to erosion on hill country and also measured transfer of topsoil around hill country.

Relevance: The data suggest that the measured increase in soil carbon on hill country was likely due to rebuilding of topsoil rather than movement of soil from high upslope onto midslopes.

Schipper, L.A.; Dodd, M.D.; Pronger, J.; Mudge, P.L.; Upsdell, M.; Moss, R. (2013) Long-term changes in total soil C and N of pastures under differing irrigation frequencies and superphosphate fertilizer application rates. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 77:246–256.  doi:10.2136/sssaj2012.0126.

Synopsis: We measured 50 years of recovery of topsoil carbon and nitrogen under
different flood irrigation rates and fertiliser treatments. Despite increasing pasture
growth the addition of phosphorus fertiliser did not increase the rate of soil
carbon accumulation but did increase nitrogen accumulation. Surprisingly, irrigation
reduced the rate of C and N accumulation in comparison to non-irrigated sites.

Relevance: Fertiliser and irrigation are two of our main approaches for increasing food and fibre production and we demonstrated some of the long-term effects on key soil properties and their recovery. Spray irrigation (which differs from flood irrigation) is expanding throughout New Zealand and its effects on soils properties needs further exploration.


Parfitt, R.L.; Stevenson, B.A.; Dymond J.R.; Schipper, L.A., Baisden W.T., Ballantine, D.J. (2012) Nitrogen inputs and outputs for New Zealand from 1990 to 2010 at national and regional scales. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 55, 241-262.

Synopsis: This paper reports New Zealand’s nitrogen budget for 1990, 2000 and 2010 estimating all inputs and outputs at both regional and national scales.

Relevance: Nitrogen inputs to New Zealand increased during these two decades mainly due to increased nitrogen fertiliser import and use. Nitrogen losses to waterways and the atmosphere also increased with likely effects on receiving environments.

Lambie, S.M.; Schipper, L.A.; Balks, M.R.; Baisden, W.T. (2012) Solubilisation of soil carbon following treatment with cow urine under laboratory conditions. Soil Research. 50: 50–57.

Synopsis: This paper demonstrates that dairy cow urine can dissolve soil organic matter and potentially make this more degradable by microbes.

Relevance:Deposition of dairy cow urine may have contributed to losses of soil carbon in New Zealand

Cameron, S.G.; Schipper L.A. (2012) Hydraulic properties and hydraulic efficiency of organic carbon media for use in denitrification beds. Ecological Engineering

Lambie, S.M.; Schipper, L.A. Balks, M.R.; Baisden, W.T. (2012) Carbon leaching from undisturbed soil cores treated with dairy cow urine. Soil Research. 50, 320–327.


Mudge, P.L.; Wallace, D.F.; Rutledge, S, Campbell, D.I.; Schipper, L.A.; Hosking, C.L. (2011). Carbon balance of an intensively grazed temperate pasture in two climatically contrasting years. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment. 144: 271-280.

Synopsis: This study developed methods for measuring carbon balances for grazed dairy farm over two years including a 1-in-a-100 year summer drought. Remarkedly, the system recovered the carbon lost during the drought by the end of the year.

Relevance: This was the first effort in New Zealand pastures to construct carbon balances including all inputs (photosynthesis, imported feed) and losses (respiration, milk, methane, silage). We will use this methdology to determine whether different management practices can increase carbon content of soil.

Schipper L.A.; Sparling G.P.; Fisk, L.M.; Dodd, M.B.; Power, I.L.; Littler, R.A. (2011) Rates of accumulation of cadmium and uranium in a New Zealand hill farm soil as a result of long-term use of phosphate fertilizer. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment.144: 95– 101

Warneke, S.; Schipper, L.A.; Matiasek, M.G.; Scow, K.M.; Cameron, S.; Bruesewitz, D.A.; McDonald I.R. (2011) Nitrate removal, communities of denitrifiers and adverse effects in different carbon substrates for use in denitrification beds. Water Research 45: 5463-5475.

Warneke, S.; Schipper, L.A.; Bruesewitz, D.A.; Baisden, W.T. (2011) A comparison of different approaches for measuring denitrification rates in a nitrate removing bioreactor. Water Research. 45: 4141-4151. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2011.05.027.

Cameron S.G. Schipper L.A. (2011) Evaluation of passive solar heating and alternative flow regimes on nitrate removal in denitrification beds. Ecological Engineering. 37: 1195-1204.

Schipper, L.A.; Sparling, G.P. (2011). Accumulation of soil organic C and change in C:N ratio after establishment of pastures in New Zealand. Biogeochemistry. 104(1): 49-58.

Schipper, L.A.; Dodd, M.; Fisk, L.M.; Power, I.; Parenzee, J.; Arnold G. (2011) Trends in soil carbon and nutrients of hill-country pastures receiving different phosphorus fertilizer loadings for 20 years. Biogeochemistry. 104(1): 35-48. Doi: 10.1007/s10533-009-9353-5.

Stevenson, B.A.; Schipper, L.A.; McGill, A. Clark. D. (2011) Denitrification and availability of carbon and nitrogen in a well-drained pasture soil amended with particulate organic carbon. Journal of Environmental Quality. 40:923-930.

Bruesewitz, D.A.; Hamilton, D.; Schipper, L.A. (2011) Denitrification potential of lake sediment increases with catchment agriculture: An examination of the Rotorua Lakes region of New Zealand. Ecosystems. 3: 341-352. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-011-9413-2.

Long, L.; Schipper L.A.; Bruesewitz D.A. (2011) Long-term nitrate removal in a denitrification wall. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment. 140: 514–520. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2011.02.005.

Warneke, S., Schipper, L.A., Brusewitz, D.A., McDonald I.R., Cameron S.G., (2011) Rates, controls and potential adverse effects of nitrate removal in a denitrification bed. Ecological Engineering. 37: 511-522.


Stevenson B.A., Parfitt R.L., Schipper L.A., Baisden T.; Mudge P. (2010) Relationship between soil δ15N, C/N and N losses across land uses in New Zealand. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment.  139: 736-741  doi:10.1016/j.agee.2010.10.020.

Schipper, L.A.; Parfitt, R.L.; Ross, C.; Baisden, W.T; Claydon J.J.; Fraser S. (2010) Gains and losses in C and N stocks of New Zealand pasture soils depend on land use. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 139: 611–617. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2010.10.005.

Schipper, L.A.; Gold, A.J.; Davidson E.A. (2010) Managing denitrification in human dominated landscapes. Editorial for Ecological Engineering. 36 (11), 1503-1506.

 Schipper, L.A.; Robertson, W.D.; Gold A.J.; Jaynes, D.B.; Cameron, S.G. (2010) Denitrifying bioreactors – an approach for reducing nitrate loads to receiving waters. Ecological Engineering. 36 (11): 1532-1543.  doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.04.008.

Cameron S.G.; Schipper L.A. (2010) Nitrate removal and hydraulic performance of carbon substrates for potential use in denitrification beds. Ecological Engineering. 36 (11): 1588-1595. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.03.010.

Schipper, L.A.; Cameron, S.G.; Warneke S. (2010) Nitrate removal from three different effluents using large-scale denitrification beds. Ecological Engineering. 36 (11): 1552-1557

Parfitt, R.L.;  Ross, C; Schipper, L.A.; Claydon, J.J.; Baisden, W.T.; Arnold, G. (2010) Correcting bulk density measurements made with driving hammer equipment. Geoderma, 157: 46-50. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.03.014.

Rutledge, S.; Campbell DI; Baldocchi D.; Schipper, L.A. (2010) Photodegradation leads to increased CO2 losses from terrestrial organic matter. Global Change Biology. 16(11): 3065-3074.


Clarkson, B.R.; Schipper, L.A.; W.B. Silvester (2009) Nutritional niche separation in co-existing bog species demonstrated by 15N-enriched simulated rainfall. Austral Ecology, 34: 377-385.


Schipper, L.A.; McGill, A. (2008) Nitrogen transformation in a denitrification layer irrigated with dairy factory effluent. Water Research. 42:2457–2464 doi:10.1016/j.watres.2008.01.033

Parfitt, R.L.; Baisden, W.T.; Schipper, L.A.; Mackay, A.D. (2008) Nitrogen inputs and outputs for New Zealand at national and regional scales: past, present and future. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 38(2): 71–87.

Schipper L.A. (2008) In: Discussion of: Schroder, J.J. Neeteson, J.J. (2008) Nutrient management regulations in The Netherlands (with Discussion), Geoderma. 144: 426–434.

Barkle, G.F.; Schipper, L.A.; Burgess, C.P.; Milne J.; Painter, B.D. (2008) Insitu mixing of organic matter decreases conductivity of denitrification walls in sand aquifers. Groundwater Monitoring Remediation. 28(1): 57-64, doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6592.2007.00185.x

Fritz C.; Campbell D.I.; Schipper L.A. (2008) Oscillating peat surface levels in a restiad peatland, New Zealand—magnitude and spatiotemporal variability. Hydrological Processes. 22, 3264–3274  DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6912

Sparling, G.; Schipper, L.A.; Yeates, G.; Aislabie, J.; Vojvodic-Vukovic, M.; Ryburn, J.; Di H.J. (2008) Soil characteristics, belowground diversity and rates of simazine mineralisation of a New Zealand Gley Soil in a chronosequence under horticultural use. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 44 (4): 633-640


Schipper, L.A.; Baisden, W.T.; Parfitt, R.L.; Ross, C.; Claydon J.J. Arnold, G.  (2007) Large losses of soil C and N from soil profiles under pasture in New Zealand during the past 20 years. Global Change Biology.13:1138-1144.


Parfitt, R.L; Schipper, L.A.; Baisden, W.T.; Elliot, A.H. (2006) Nitrogen inputs and outputs for New Zealand in 2001 at national and regional scales. Biogeochemistry 80: 71-88.

Sparling, G.P., L. Barton, L. Duncan, A. McGill, T.W. Speir, L.A. Schipper, G. Arnold and A. Van Schaik (2006). Nutrient Leaching and Changes in Soil Characteristics of Four Contrasting Soils Irrigated with Secondary-Treated Wastewater for 4 Years. Australian Journal of Soil Research 44 (2): 107-116.

Sparling G.P.; Wheeler,  D.; Vesely E.T.; Schipper L.A. (2006) What is soil organic matter worth? Journal of Environmental Quality 35: 548-557.


Nieveen, J.P.; Schipper L.A. (2005). The carbon budget of New Zealand peatlands. Pp 411. In: The Peatlands of Australasian Region. Whinam, J.; Hope, G.  (Eds) Museum of Upper Austria, Austria.

Schipper, L.A.; Barkle, G.F.; Vojvodic-Vukovic, M. (2005) Maximum rates of nitrate removal in a denitrification wall. Journal of Environmental Quality 34: 1270-1276.

Clarkson, B.R.; Schipper, L.A.; Moyersoen, B.; Silvester, W.B. (2005) Foliar 15N natural abundances indicates phosphorus limitation of bog species. Oecologia 144: 550-557.

Nieveen, J.P.; Campbell, D.I.; Schipper L.A.; Blair, I. (2005) Carbon exchange of grazed pasture on a drained peat soil. Global Change Biology. 11: 607-618.

Barton, L.; Schipper, L.A.; G. F. Barkle, M. McLeod, T. W. Speir, M. D. Taylor, A. C. McGill, A. P. van Schaik, N. B. Fitzgerald, and S. P. Pandey. (2005). Plant Uptake and Leaching of Nutrients from Four Contrasting Soil Types Irrigated with Secondary-Treated Domestic Effluent.  Journal of Environmental Quality 34: 635–644.


Schipper, L.A.; Percival, H.J.; Sparling G.P. (2004) An approach for estimating maximum nitrogen storage in soils. Soil Use and Management 20:281-286.

Schipper, L.A.; Sparling, G.P.; Ross, C. (2004) Letter to editor, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 59(2): 25.

Clarkson, B.R. Schipper L.A., Lehmann, A. (2004) Vegetation and peat characteristics in the development of lowland restiad peat bogs, North Island, New Zealand, since 13,000 14C years BP. Wetlands 24 (1): 133–151.

Clarkson B.R.; Schipper, L.A.; Clarkson, B.D. (2004) Vegetation and peat characteristics of restiad peat bogs on Chatham Island (Rekohu), New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 42: 293–312.

Schipper, L.A. and Lee, W.G. (2004) Microbial heterotrophic diversity and community structure in ultramafic soils of West Dome, New Zealand. Plant and Soil. 262 (1-2): 151–158.

Yeates, G.W.; Schipper, L.A.; Smale, M.C. (2004) Site condition, fertility gradients and soil biological activity in a New Zealand frost flat heathland. Pedobiologia. 48(2): 129-137

Sparling G.P.; Schipper, L.A.; Hill, R.; Bettjeman, W. (2004) Soil quality monitoring in New Zealand: establishment of a national scheme and selecting a minimum data set. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment. 104: 523–534.

Lilburne L.; Sparling, G.P.; Schipper, L.A. (2004) Development of an interpretative framework for soil quality assessment. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment. 104: 535–544.

Sparling G.P.; Schipper, L.A (2004) Soil quality monitoring in New Zealand: trends and issues arising from a broad-scale survey 1995-2001. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment. 104: 545–552.

Schipper, L.A.; Barkle, G.F.; Vojvodic-Vukovic, M.; Hadfield, J.C.; Burgess, C.P. (2004). Hydraulic constraints on the performance of a groundwater denitrification wall for nitrate removal from shallow groundwater. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 69:263–279.

Stevenson B.A.; Sparling, G.P.; Schipper, L.A.; Degens, B.P.; Duncan, L. (2004) Pasture and forest soil microbial communities show consistent patterns in their responses at a landscape scale. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 36:49–55.


Sparling G.P.; Ross, D.; Trustrum, N.; Arnold, G.; West, A.; Speir, T.; Schipper, L. (2003) Recovery of topsoil characteristics after landslip erosion in dry hill country of New Zealand, and a test of the space-for-time hypothesis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35: 1575–1586.

Sparling G.P.; Parfitt, R.L.; Hewitt, A.E.; Schipper, L.A. (2003) A comparison of three approaches to define lower limits for soil organic matter C contents. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32: 760-766.


Sparling G.P.; Schipper, L.A. (2002) Soil quality at a national scale in New Zealand.  Journal of Environmental Quality. 31(6): 1848–1858.

Schipper, L.A.; Clarkson, B.R.; Vojvodic-Vukovic, M.; Webster R. (2002) Restoration approaches for cut over restiad peat bogs: factorial experiment of nutrients and cultivation and seeds. Ecological Engineering. 19(1): 29–44.

Schipper, L.A; McLeod, M. (2002) Subsidence rates and carbon loss in peat soils following conversion to pasture in the Waikato Region, New Zealand. Soil Use and Management. 18 (2): 91–93.


Schipper L.A.; Degens, B.P.; Sparling G. P.; Duncan, L. (2001) Changes in microbial heterotrophic diversity along five plant successional sequences. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 33(15): 2093-2103.

Barton L.; Schipper L.A. (2001) Regulation of nitrous oxide emissions from soils irrigated with dairy farm effluent.  Journal of Environmental Quality.30:1881-1887.

Schipper L.A., Vojvodic-Vukovic M. (2001) Five years of nitrate removal, denitrification and carbon dynamics in a denitrification wall. Water Research. 35/14: 3473–3477.

Sparling G.P.; Schipper L.A.; Russell, J.M. (2001) Changes in soil properties after application of dairy factory effluent to New Zealand volcanic ash and pumice soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research.  39(3): 505-518.

Degens B.P.; Schipper L.A.; Sparling, G.P; Duncan L.C. (2001) Is the microbial community in a soil with reduced catabolic diversity less resistant to stress or disturbance? Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 33:1143–1153.


Barton, L; Schipper, L.A.; McLay C.D.; Smith C.T. (2000) Denitrifying enzyme activity in a land treatment systems is regulated by water-filled porosity. Soil Biology and Fertility.  32:385-389

Sparling, G.P.; Shepherd, T.G.; Schipper L.A. (2000). Topsoil characteristics of three contrasting New Zealand soils under long-term indigenous forest, plantation forest, pastures or arable cropping. NZ Journal of Agricultural Research. 43:569-583.

Sparling, G.P.; Schipper, L.A.; Hewitt, A.E.; Degens, B.P. (2000) Resistance to cropping pressure of two New Zealand soils with contrasting mineralogy. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 38 (1): 85-100.

Degens B.P.; Schipper, L.A.; Claydon, J.J.; Russell, J.M. and G.W. Yeates (2000) Irrigation of an allophanic soil with dairy factory effluent for 22 years: responses of nutrient storage and soil biota. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 38(1) 25-35.

Schipper L.A.; Sparling G.P. (2000) Performance of a standard set of soil quality indicators over a wide range of soils and land uses. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 64:300-311.

Degens, B. P.; Schipper, L.A.; Sparling G.P.; and Vojvodic-Vukovic. M. (2000)  Decreases in organic C reserves in soils can reduce microbial functional diversity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 32:189-196.

Schipper L.A., and M. Vojvodic-Vukovic (2000). Nitrate removal from groundwater and denitrification rates in a porous treatment wall amended with sawdust. Ecological Engineering.  14(3): 269-278.

Barton, L., Schipper, L.A., McLeod, M., Aislabie, J.M. and Lee, R.  (2000) Soil processes that influence sewerage effluent renovation.  Whitehouse, L.J.; Wang, H; Tomer, M. (Eds.). Pp 21–41. In: New Zealand Guidelines for utilisation of sewerage effluent on land. Part 2: issues for design and management. New Zealand Land Treatment Collective and Forest Research, Rotorua, NZ.

Tomer, M.; Bruer A. Rosen, M.; Royguard, J.; Schipper, L.A.; Clothier, B. (2000) System management and monitoring. Whitehouse, L.J.; Wang, H; Tomer, M. (Eds.). Pp 121–153. In: New Zealand Guidelines for utilisation of sewerage effluent on land. Part 2: issues for design and management. New Zealand Land Treatment Collective and Forest Research, Rotorua, NZ.


Barton, L., McLay, C.D.A., Schipper, L.A. and Smith C.T. (1999).  Annual denitrification rates in agricultural and forested soils: a review.  Australian Journal of Soil Research. 37(6) 1073-1093.

Barton L, McLay C.D., Schipper L.A. and Smith C.T. (1999) Denitrification rates in a wastewater-irrigated forest soil. Journal of Environmental Quality. 28(6): 2008-2015

Magesan, G.N.; Williamson, J.C; Sparling, G.P.; Schipper L.A.; Jones, A.Rh. (1999) Hydraulic conductivity in soils irrigated with wastewaters of differing strengths: Field and laboratory studies.  Australian Journal of Soil Research. 37(2):391-402.

Clarkson, B.R., Thompson, K., Schipper, L.A., McLeod, M. (1999).  Moanatuatua Bog   proposed restoration of a New Zealand restiad peat bog ecosystem.  pp. 127 137. In: W. Streever (ed.) An International Perspective on Wetland Rehabilitation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.


Schipper, L.A.; McLeod, M.; Clarkson, B.; Vojvodic-Vukovic, M.; Taylor M. (1998) Gradients of microbial biomass, anaerobically-mineralizable N and some physical properties in a restiad peat bog. International Peat Journal. 8:71-75.

Barton, L.; McLay, C.D.; Schipper, L.A.; Smith, C.T. (1998) Procedures for characterising denitrification rates in a wastewater irrigated forest soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 36:997-1008.

Sparling G.P., Vojvodic-Vukovic M., Schipper L.A. (1998) Water-soluble C as a simple alternative to microbial biomass C to provide a measure of labile soil organic matter. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30(10/11):1469-1473.

McLeod, M.; Schipper, L.A.; Taylor, M.D. (1998) Preferential flow in a well drained and a poorly drained soil under different overhead irrigation regimes. Soil Use and Management 14:96-100.

Schipper L.A., and M. Vojvodic-Vukovic (1998) Nitrate removal from groundwater using a denitrification wall amended with sawdust: field trial. Journal of Environmental Quality 27:664 668.


Tomer, M.D.; Schipper, L.A.; Knowles, S.F.; Rijkse, W.C.; McMahon, S.D.; Smith, C.T.; Thorn, A.; Charleston, T. (1997). A land-based system for treament of municipal wastewater at Whakarewarewa Forest, New Zealand: characterisation of soil, plant, groundwater, and wetland components. NZFRI bulletin 199. 28 p.

Downes, M.T., Howard Williams C., and L.A. Schipper. (1997). The long and short roads to riparian zone restoration: nitrate removal efficiency. p. 244 – 254. In N.E. Haycock, T.P. Burt K.W.T. Goulding, and G. Pinay (ed.) Buffer Zones: their processes and potential in water protection. Quest Environmental, Oxfordshire, England.


Schipper, L.A.; Williamson, J.C.; Kettles, H.A.; Speir, T.W. (1996). Impact of land-applied tertiary-treated effluent on soil properties. Journal of Environmental Quality 25: 1073-1077.

Schipper, L.A.; Reddy, K.R. (1996). Methane oxidation in the rhizosphere of Saggetaria lancifolia determined using the specific inhibitor methyl fluoride. Soil Science Society of America Journal 60: 611-616.


Schipper, L.A.; Reddy, K.R. (1995). A simple method for measuring plant decomposition through a wetland soil profile. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59(2): 565-568.


Schipper, L.A.; Harfoot, C.G.; McFarlane P.N.; Cooper, A.B. (1994). Anaerobic decomposition and denitrification during plant decomposition in an organic soil. Journal of Environmental Quality. 23(5): 923-928.

McNeal, B.L.; Stanley, C.D.; Espinoza, L.A.; Schipper, L.A. (1994). Nitrogen Management for vegetables and citrus: some environmental considerations. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida, 53: 45-51.

Schipper, L.A.; Reddy, K.R. (1994). Methane production and emissions from four reclaimed and pristine wetlands of the Southeastern United States. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 54(4): 1270-1275.

Schipper, L.A.; Harfoot, C.G.; Cooper, A.B.; Dyck, W.J. (1994). An inverse relationship between nitrate and ammonium in an organic riparian soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 26: 801-803.


Schipper, L.A.; Cooper, A.B.; Harfoot, C.G.; Dyck, W.J. (1993). Regulators of denitrification in an organic riparian soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 25(7): 925-933.


Gilliam, J.W.; Schipper, L.A.; Beets, P.N.; McConchie, M. (1992) Riparian buffers in New Zealand Forestry. New Zealand Forestry. 37(2): 21-26.


Schipper, L.A.; Cooper, A.B.; Dyck W.J. (1991). Mitigating non point source nitrate pollution by riparian zone denitrification. pp 401-413. In: Nitrate Contamination: Exposure, Consequence and Control. Borgardi I, and R.D. Kulzelka (eds). NATO ASI series Springer Verlag, New York.


Schipper, L.A.; Dyck, W.J.; Barton, P.G.; Hodgkiss, P.D. (1989). Nitrogen renovation by denitrification in forest sewage irrigation systems. Biological Wastes. 29(3): 181 187.

Note that the ideas/descriptions/opinions on these pages are ours and may not reflect those of the University of Waikato.